Steel Pipes : Materials of Construction

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Selection of Material of Construction for steel pipes depends on their Design Temperature, and Fluid Properties.

Pipes made from carbon steel lose strength at high temperatures. Electric-resistance-welded pipe is not considered satisfactory for service above 750 F, whereas furnace-buttwelded pipes are not good above 650 F. For higher temperatures, pipe made from stainless steels or other alloys should be considered.

Pressure ratings for steel pipe at different temperatures are calculated according to the ANSI B31.3 Code for Pressure Piping. ANSI B31.3 gives stress temperature values for the various steels from which pipe is fabricated.

Seam Welded Pipes are made using plates while Seamless pipes are made using dies. Steel pipes are commonly made with Black Finish or Galvanized. Proper selection of steel pipe material is critical for strength and durability required for application and ductility and machinability required to join it and form into piping. The selected pipe must withstand the conditions of use, especially pressure, temperature and corrosion conditions.

All these requirements can be met by selecting a pipe made to an appropriate standard e.g. ASTM or API Standard.

ASTM A-53

  1. Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless Electric fusion welded steel pipe for High pressure service at moderate temperatures.
  2. One of the two most used steel pipe material for welding, bending and coiling.
  3. Wall thicknesses are mainly Sch 40 (STD) and Sch 80 (XS).
  4. They are either made seamless or seamed using ERW, in Grades A and B. Grade B has higher tensile strength.
  5. Used mainly for utility services. For process piping, A106 is used.
  6. NPS 1⁄8 to NPS 26 [DN 6 to DN 650].
  7. Temperature Range : -15 to 415 deg.C.
  8. There are three types and 5 Grades as shown below.
  9. Type S : Seamless Pipe with Grade A and B based on Carbon Content. A: 0.25% and Grade B : 0.3 Percent. Use A if bending and Closed Coiling to be done. Currently an outdated specification and has been replaced by ASTM A106 specification for seamless carbon steel pipe.
  10. Type E : Electric Resistance Welded with Grade A and B based on Carbon Content. A:0.25% and Grade B: 0.3 Percent. Use A if bending and Closed Coiling to be done.
  11. Type F : Furnace Welded Pipe : With Grade A : 0.3 % Carbon. Not intended for Flanging.

For more information, check out this link : https://www.astm.org/Standards/A53.htm

ASTM A-106

  1. This is a seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service in NPS 1⁄8 to NPS 48 inclusive, with nominal (average) wall thickness as given in ANSI B 36.10.
  2. They are mainly used for Process piping while A53 Used for Utility services.
  3. Temperature Range : -15 to 415 deg.C.
  4. Pipe ordered under this specification shall be suitable for bending, flanging, and similar forming operations, and for welding.
  5. Available grades are Grade A, B and C, with carbon content 0.25, 0.3 and 0.35 respectively. Hardness increases and weldability decreases. Bending ability also decreases from A to C.
  6. Grade A rather than Grade B or Grade C is the preferred grade for close coiling or cold bending.
  7. Wall thicknesses are mainly Sch 40 (STD) and Sch 80 (XS). They are either made seamless or seamed using ERW.

For more information, check out this link : https://www.astm.org/Standards/A106.htm

ASTM A-120

This is the most widely stocked pip. It covers welded and seamless pipe for normal use in steam, water, and gas (including air) service.  This pipe is not intended for bending, coiling or high temperature service. It is not specified for hydrocarbon process lines.

ASTM A-672

Its an Electric fusion welded steel pipe for High pressure service at moderate temperatures.  Design temperature Range : -29 deg.C to 425 deg. C

For more information, check out this link : https://www.astm.org/Standards/A672.htm

API 5L : Line Pipe

In the oil and natural gas industries, steel pipe used to convey oil and gas is manufactured to the American Petroleum Institute’s standard API 5L, which applies tighter control of composition and more testing than ASTM-120. Available Grades are :

  1. Grade A and B SMLS,
  2. Grade A and B ERW,
  3. Grade FBW

ASTM A312 Stainless Steel

This is a seamless, straight-seam welded, and heavily cold worked welded austenitic stainless steel pipe intended for high-temperature and general corrosive service. Chromium content ranges from 15 to 26 Percent.

Available Stainless Steel Grades are :  ASTM A312 TP304, 304H, 304L,310, 316, 316H, 316L, 317,321L, 321, 321H, 347, 347H.

  1. For Cryogenic Temperatures upto -100 Deg. C : 304, 304L, 316, 316L, 327H and 347
  2. For Elevated Temperatures below 630 deg. C : 304H, 316H, 327H and 312

For more details check out this link : https://www.astm.org/Standards/A312.htm

ASTM A333 : LTCS

This is a low temperature carbon steel material used for operating temperatures in range of -15 deg C to -100 deg. C. Both Seamless and Welded Steel pipes are available. These pipes require Impact Testing.  Grade 1 and Grade 3 are mostly used. No filler metal is used in welding operation. All pipes shall be heat treated to control their microstructure.

For more details, check out this link : https://www.astm.org/Standards/A333.htm

ASTM A335 : Alloy Steel

This is a seamless ferritic alloy-steel pipe intended for elevated temperature service, more than 415 deg.C and upto 600 deg.C.

Pipe ordered to this specification shall be suitable for bending, flanging (vanstoning), and similar forming operations, and for fusion welding. These are seamless pipe only.

Available grades are : P1,P2,P5,P5B, P5C,P9,P11,P12,P15,P21,P22,P23,P91,P122,P911

They have higher chromium and molybdenum content than A106.

Grades P1, P11, P12 and P22 Used for Elevated Temperatures, above 427 deg. C upto 630 deg. C.

  1. P11 : Max 595 deg. C.
  2.  P21 and P22 : Max 650 deg. C .
  3. P1 : 415 to 470 deg. C.
  4. P11 and P12 : 470 to 540 dg. C (P11 has higher chromial content hence more corrosion resistance than P12. Normally they are used interchangeably based on availability)
  5. P22 : 540 to 600 deg. C
  6. A312 TP 304H, 316H, 312 and 347H used above 600 deg. upto 815 deg. C

Steel specifications in other countries may correspond with USA specifications.

Equivalent Pipe Materials of Different Countries

Carbon Steel Materials

USA UK GERMANY SWEDEN
ASTM A53 BS 3601 DIN 1629
  1. Grade A SMLS
  2. GRADE B SMLS
  1. HFS 22 & CDS 22
  2. HFS 27 and CDS 27
  1. St 35
  2. St 45
  1. SIS 1233-05
  2. SIS 1434-05
 ASTM A53  BS 3601  DIN 1626
  1. Grade A ERW
  2. Grade B ERW
  1. ERW 22
  2. ERW 27
  1. Blatt 3 St 34-2 ERW
  2. Blatt 3 St 37-2 ERW
ASTM A53  BS 3601   DIN 1626
FBW BW 22  Blatt 3 St 34-2 FBW
ASTM A106  BS 3602   DIN 17175
  1. Grade A
  2. Grade B
  3. Grade C
  1. HFS 23
  2. HFS 27
  3. HFS 35
  1.  St 35-8
  2. St 45-8
  1. SIS 1234-05
  2. SIS 1435-05
ASTM A134   BS 3601  DIN 1626
EFW Blatt 2 EFW
ASTM A135  BS 3601  DIN 1626
  1. Grade A
  2. Grade B
  1.  ERW 22
  2. ERW 27
  1.  Blatt 3 St 34-2 ERW
  2. Blatt 3 St 37-2 ERW
  1.  SIS 1233-06
  2. SIS 1434-06
ASTM A139  BS 3601  DIN 1626
  1. Grade A
  2. Grade B
  1.  EFW 22
  2. EFW 27
  1.  Blatt 2 St 37
  2. Blatt 2 St 42
API 5L  BS 3601  DIN 1629
  1. Grade A SMLS
  2. Grade B SMLS
  1.  HFS 22 & CDS 22
  2. HFS 27 & CDS 27
  1. St 35
  2. St 45
  1.  SIS 1233-05
  2. SIS 1434-05
API 5L  BS 3601  DIN 1625
  1. Grade A ERW
  2. Grade B ERW
  1.  ERW 22
  2. ERW 27
  1. Blatt 3 St 34-2 ERW
  2. Blatt 4 St 37-2 ERW
  1.  SIS 1233-06
  2. SIS 1434-06
API 5L  BS 3601 DIN 1626 
  1. Grade A EFW
  2. Grade B EFW
  1.  EFW 22
  2. EFW 27
  1. Blatt 3 St 34-2 FW
  2. Blatt 4 St 37-2 FW
API 5L  BS 3601 DIN 1626 
FBW  BW 22 Blatt 3 St 34-2 FBW

Stainless Steel Pipes

US UK Germany Sweden
ASTM A312 BS 3605 WSN Designation
  1. TP 304
  2. TP 304H
  3. TP 304L
  4. TP 310
  5. TP 316
  6. TP 316H
  7. TP 316L
  8. TP 317
  9. TP 321
  10. TP 321H
  11. TP 347
  12. TP 347H
  1. Grade 801
  2. Grade 811
  3. Grade 801L
  4. Grade 805
  5. Grade 845
  6. Grade 855
  7. Grade 845l
  8. Grade 846
  9. Grade 822 Ti
  10. Grade 832 Ti
  11. Grade 822 Nb
  12. Grade 832 Nb
  1. 4301 x 5 CrNi 18 9
  2. 4306 x 2 CrNi 18 9
  3. 4841 x 15 CrNiSi 25 20
  4. 4401/4436 x 5 CrNiSi 18 10
  5. 4404 x 2 CrNiMo 18 10
  6. 4541 x 10 CrNiTi 18 9
  7. 4550 x 10 CrNiNb 18 9
  1. SIS 2333-02
  2. SIS 2352-02
  3. SIS 2361-02
  4. SIS 2343-02
  5. SIS 2353-02
  6. SIS 2337-02
  7. SIS 2338-02

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