Proper compressor layout In a process plant is essential for ideal operation, maintenance and construction requirements. compressors are used to compress gases to high pressures. This is achieved by mechanically reducing volume of gas withing case of a compressor. High pressures are required for various reasons such as particular chemical reaction requirements, or to condense the gas such as LPG, LNG etc. Variety of compressors are used based on type of gas to be compressed, pressure requirements, economy and availability.
Air is most frequently compressed, but natural gas, oxygen and nitrogen are also compressed.
Positive-Displacement, Centrifugal and Axial Compressors are the three most common types used in process facilities and pipeline stations. They can handle large volumes of gas in relatively small equipment and may have a variety of drives (e.g. electric motors and steam or gas turbines).
Types of Compressors
Following types of compressors are used in process plants:
|They are usually of the reciprocating piston type and are only compressors that can compress gas …Read More..|
|Centrifugal machines can be single stage or multi stage. Large volumes of gas are compressed to …Read More..|
|Consists of two synchronized lobed rotors turning within a casing. Rotors do not touch …Read More..|
|Air or other gas enters pockets formed between mating rotors and a casing wall. The pockets …Read More..|
|This type of compressor consists of a single multi-bladed rotor which turns within a casing of …Read More..|
|A scroll compressor, also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum pump, uses two interleaved spiral-like …Read More..|
|Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots …Read More..|
|A diaphragm compressor (also known as a membrane compressor) is a variant of the conventional reciprocating …Read More..|
|Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the …Read More..|
Most widely used drives for compressors are electric motors, steam turbines and gas turbines. Of these, electric motors are simplest type of drive from layout point of view.
|Electric Motors From layout standpoint, electric motors requires the least amount of information to support a comprehensive …Read More..|
Compressor Auxiliary Equipments
Centrifugal and reciprocating compressors and their drives require a variety of auxiliary equipments to support their operation.
|Compressor bearings receive lube oil from lube oil consoles. These consoles may either alone or be …Read More..|
|The hydraulic seals, located at the outer ends of the compressor shaft, receive oil form the …Read More..|
|Surface condensers reduce gas or vapour to a liquid by removing heat. Once sufficient heat is …Read More..|
|The Condensate pump which is usually vertical, removes the condensate from the hot well in the …Read More..|
|Usually motor driven, these centrifugal fan machines deliver fresh air to cool the internally hosed electric …Read More..|
|Gas turbines require large amounts of clean filtered air for operation. The filters can be extremely …Read More..|
|Waste heat system take hot exhaust gas from gas turbines and put high outlet temperatures, ranging …Read More..|
|Because compressors require dry gas that is free of foreign particles, it is necessary to pass …Read More..|
|The negative effects of vibration on life of reciprocating compressors and associated piping can be minimized …Read More..|
|Following drawing shows how primary process considerations govern the elevation of the surface condenser and some …Read More..|
Compressors are complicated equipments and require frequent maintenance. They have heavy parts to handle during maintenance. They have frequently large size piping attached to it. All these facts must be considered during layout of compressor house.
|Compressor installations and most other equipment may be located either in open areas of the plant …Read More..|
Compressor Arrangement and Location
|Compressor house should be located near the battery limits to facilitate ease in maintenance and operation. Compressors shall …Read More..|
|Because many acceptable variations of a centrifugal compressor area are possible, the version presented below must …Read More..|
|The arrangement shown here consists of three electric-motor driven reciprocating compressors as well as air blowers, …Read More..|
Setting Compressor Elevation
This section deals with the problems that must be addressed when the elevations of both centrifugal and reciprocating compressors are set.
When separate lube oil consoles are used, a free-draining line from the machine to the lube oil reservoir must be maintained.
|The type of driver and associated equipment items as well as the straight run requirements of …Read More..|
|Reciprocating machines are located as close to grade as possible because of the extreme vibration in …Read More..|
Compressor Inter and After Coolers
|Inter-coolers : Coolers are primarily used to reduce the operating temperature within a compressor circuit, which …Read More..|
Compressor Housing and Platform Requirements
|When a compressor is covered- partially or totally enclosed by a shelter or structure – many …Read More..|
Compressor Piping Arrangement
There are many ways to develop a compressor layout, but certain aspects of these machines dictate how best to approach a design that optimizes operation, maintenance and safety while adhering to economic requirements.
|As compressors induce lot of vibrations in connected piping and structure, careful design of compressor …Read More..|
|There are many ways to develop a centrifugal compressor layout, but certain aspects of these machines …Read More..|
|Poorly designed reciprocating compressor piping causes pulsations that can reduce machine capacity and increase horsepower requirements. Line …Read More..|